Polycystic Ovarian Disease: Sign, causes, complication and treatment

PCOD, Polycystic Ovarian Disease, also known as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgen (male hormones such as testosterone) in females. It is very common disease affecting 5 -10% of women , mostly of age 12 -45 years.

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What are the signs and symptoms?

  1. Acne (Pimples)
  2. Obesity and trouble loosing weight
  3. Hirsutism (extra hair on face and body )
  4. Irregular menstruation (less than 9 in a year), sometimes amenorrhoea (no periods)
  5. Thinning of hair on scalp
  6. Infertility
  7. Pelvic pain
  8. Obstructive sleep apnoea
  9. Depression
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Why it happens?

Normally ovaries make female sex hormones and a small amount of male sex hormones (androgen) which helps regular and normal development of eggs in ovaries during each menstrual cycle.

PCOS imbalances in these sex hormones and ovary produces more androgen which causes patients to stop ovulation and get acne, hirsutism, and fertility problems.

What is ovulation?

  • Follicles are sacs within the ovaries that contain eggs.
  • Normally one or more eggs are released during each menstrual cycle called as ovulation.

In PCOS eggs in follicles do not mature and do not get released from ovaries, instead they can form very small cysts in ovary.

How it can be examined?

  • Blood sugar estimation
  • TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), T3, T4
  • USG (ultrasound )for abdomen and pelvis
  • Serum androgens, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormones (FSH)

What can be the complications?

  1. Increased risk of endometrial cancer
  2. Infertility (early treatment of PCOS is needed)
  3. Obesity, which eventually is the root of following;
    • Blood pressure
    • heart problem
    • Diabetes
    • Risk of breast cancer

Goals of medical treatment

  1. Lowering of blood glucose levels
  2. Restoration of fertility
  3. Hirsutism or acne treatment
  4. Regulation of regular menstruation and
  5. Prevention of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer

Suggested Medication

Note: (however, consult the doctor and take suitable prescription/medication)

  1. Progesterone pills:- to regulate menstrual cycle
  2. Metformin :-to increase the body sensitivity to insulin
  3. Clomiphene citrate:- to mature the eggs and release


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